2008年2月9日 星期六

實作 Linux Kernel-space 的 UDP Server

Standard
今天在『Linux Kernel Newbies』閒逛,看近期 Kernel 的動態和變化,心中不時贊歎 Linux 發展的複雜和快速,每次去都令人驚奇。該網站上除了有 kernel 的最新資訊,也有一些相關的文件和教學手冊,而其中一篇文獻『Simple UDP Server in Kernel-space』簡單示範了 kernel thread 的使用以及 Module 的撰寫,相當值得推薦參考。

由於完整程式碼不長,在這裡摘錄:
#include <linux/kernel.h>
#include <linux/module.h>
#include <linux/init.h>

#include <linux/kthread.h>

#include <linux/errno.h>
#include <linux/types.h>

#include <linux/netdevice.h>
#include <linux/ip.h>

#include <linux/in.h>

#include <linux/delay.h>

#define DEFAULT_PORT 2325
#define CONNECT_PORT 23
#define MODULE_NAME "ksocket"
//#
define INADDR_SEND ((unsigned long int)0x7f000001) /* 127.0.0.1 */

#define INADDR_SEND INADDR_LOOPBACK

/*
2006/06/27 - Added ksocket_send, so, after receive a packet, the kernel send another back to the CONNECT_PORT
- Rodrigo Rubira Branco <rodrigo@kernelhacking.com>

2006/05/14 - Initial version
- Toni Garcia-Navarro <topi@phreaker.net>
*/


struct
kthread_t

{
struct
task_struct *thread;
struct
socket *sock;

struct
sockaddr_in addr;
struct
socket *sock_send;

struct
sockaddr_in addr_send;
int
running;
};

struct
kthread_t *kthread = NULL;

/* function prototypes */
int
ksocket_receive(struct socket *sock, struct sockaddr_in *addr, unsigned char *buf, int len);

int
ksocket_send(struct socket *sock, struct sockaddr_in *addr, unsigned char *buf, int len);

static void
ksocket_start(void)
{
int
size, err;

int
bufsize = 10;
unsigned char
buf[bufsize+1];

/* kernel thread initialization */
lock_kernel();
kthread->running = 1;

current->flags |= PF_NOFREEZE;

/* daemonize (take care with signals, after daemonize() they are disabled) */
daemonize(MODULE_NAME);

allow_signal(SIGKILL);
unlock_kernel();

/* create a socket */

if
( ( (err = sock_create(AF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM, IPPROTO_UDP, &kthread->sock)) < 0) ||

( (err = sock_create(AF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM, IPPROTO_UDP, &kthread->sock_send)) < 0 ))

{
printk(KERN_INFO MODULE_NAME": Could not create a datagram socket, error = %d\n", -ENXIO);

goto
out;
}

memset(&kthread->addr, 0, sizeof(struct sockaddr));

memset(&kthread->addr_send, 0, sizeof(struct sockaddr));

kthread->addr.sin_family = AF_INET;
kthread->addr_send.sin_family = AF_INET;

kthread->addr.sin_addr.s_addr = htonl(INADDR_ANY);

kthread->addr_send.sin_addr.s_addr = htonl(INADDR_SEND);

kthread->addr.sin_port = htons(DEFAULT_PORT);
kthread->addr_send.sin_port = htons(CONNECT_PORT);

if
( ( (err = kthread->sock->ops->bind(kthread->sock, (struct sockaddr *)&kthread->addr, sizeof(struct sockaddr) ) ) < 0) ||

(err = kthread->sock_send->ops->connect(kthread->sock_send, (struct sockaddr *)&kthread->addr_send, sizeof(struct sockaddr), 0) < 0 ))

{
printk(KERN_INFO MODULE_NAME": Could not bind or connect to socket, error = %d\n", -err);

goto
close_and_out;
}

printk(KERN_INFO MODULE_NAME": listening on port %d\n", DEFAULT_PORT);

/* main loop */
for
(;;)
{
memset(&buf, 0, bufsize+1);

size = ksocket_receive(kthread->sock, &kthread->addr, buf, bufsize);

if
(signal_pending(current))
break
;

if
(size < 0)

printk(KERN_INFO MODULE_NAME": error getting datagram, sock_recvmsg error = %d\n", size);
else
{

printk(KERN_INFO MODULE_NAME": received %d bytes\n", size);
/* data processing */
printk("\n data: %s\n", buf);

/* sending */
memset(&buf, 0, bufsize+1);

strcat(buf, "testing...");
ksocket_send(kthread->sock_send, &kthread->addr_send, buf, strlen(buf));

}
}

close_and_out:
sock_release(kthread->sock);

sock_release(kthread->sock_send);
kthread->sock = NULL;

kthread->sock_send = NULL;

out:
kthread->thread = NULL;

kthread->running = 0;
}

int
ksocket_send(struct socket *sock, struct sockaddr_in *addr, unsigned char *buf, int len)

{
struct
msghdr msg;
struct
iovec iov;

mm_segment_t oldfs;
int
size = 0;

if
(sock->sk==NULL)
return
0;

iov.iov_base = buf;
iov.iov_len = len;

msg.msg_flags = 0;
msg.msg_name = addr;

msg.msg_namelen = sizeof(struct sockaddr_in);
msg.msg_control = NULL;

msg.msg_controllen = 0;
msg.msg_iov = &iov;

msg.msg_iovlen = 1;
msg.msg_control = NULL;

oldfs = get_fs();
set_fs(KERNEL_DS);

size = sock_sendmsg(sock,&msg,len);
set_fs(oldfs);

return
size;
}

int
ksocket_receive(struct socket* sock, struct sockaddr_in* addr, unsigned char* buf, int len)

{
struct
msghdr msg;
struct
iovec iov;

mm_segment_t oldfs;
int
size = 0;

if
(sock->sk==NULL) return 0;

iov.iov_base = buf;
iov.iov_len = len;

msg.msg_flags = 0;
msg.msg_name = addr;

msg.msg_namelen = sizeof(struct sockaddr_in);
msg.msg_control = NULL;

msg.msg_controllen = 0;
msg.msg_iov = &iov;

msg.msg_iovlen = 1;
msg.msg_control = NULL;

oldfs = get_fs();
set_fs(KERNEL_DS);

size = sock_recvmsg(sock,&msg,len,msg.msg_flags);

set_fs(oldfs);

return
size;
}

int
__init ksocket_init(void)
{
kthread = kmalloc(sizeof(struct kthread_t), GFP_KERNEL);

memset(kthread, 0, sizeof(struct kthread_t));

/* start kernel thread */
kthread->thread = kthread_run((void *)ksocket_start, NULL, MODULE_NAME);

if
(IS_ERR(kthread->thread))
{
printk(KERN_INFO MODULE_NAME": unable to start kernel thread\n");

kfree(kthread);
kthread = NULL;
return
-ENOMEM;

}

return
0;
}

void
__exit ksocket_exit(void)

{
int
err;

if
(kthread->thread==NULL)

printk(KERN_INFO MODULE_NAME": no kernel thread to kill\n");
else
{
lock_kernel();

err = kill_proc(kthread->thread->pid, SIGKILL, 1);

unlock_kernel();

/* wait for kernel thread to die */
if
(err < 0)

printk(KERN_INFO MODULE_NAME": unknown error %d while trying to terminate kernel thread\n",-err);
else
{

while
(kthread->running == 1)
msleep(10);

printk(KERN_INFO MODULE_NAME": succesfully killed kernel thread!\n");
}
}

/* free allocated resources before exit */
if
(kthread->sock != NULL)
{

sock_release(kthread->sock);
kthread->sock = NULL;

}

kfree(kthread);
kthread = NULL;

printk(KERN_INFO MODULE_NAME": module unloaded\n");
}

/* init and cleanup functions */

module_init(ksocket_init);
module_exit(ksocket_exit);

/* module information */
MODULE_DESCRIPTION("kernel thread listening on a UDP socket (code example)");

MODULE_AUTHOR("Toni Garcia-Navarro <topi@phreaker.net>");
MODULE_LICENSE("GPL");


如果以上程式碼有什麼遺漏,敬請見諒,一切還是以原文為準。另外,該網站除了 UDP Server 之外,還有 Web Server in kernel-space 的範例,有興趣的人可以自行去閱讀研究:

http://br.kernelnewbies.org/docs/modulos_guia.html#threads